Who is considered a student?

If the employer wants to recruit secondary or university students during the school holidays, they must be at least 15 and under 27 years of age.

In addition, these young people must be enrolled in an educational institution and be regularly attending a full-time course of study there. 

A secondary or university student is a person whose school enrolment ended less than four months ago. 

A person whose voluntary service ended less than four months ago is also considered a secondary or university student. 

For how many months can secondary or university students be recruited?

A secondary or university student can be hired for a maximum of two months during the same year.

This limit may not be exceeded under any circumstances, even if several different contracts are concluded during the year with the same secondary or university student, or even if the employer changes.


Can an employment contract for secondary or university students be concluded verbally?

No, the employer must draw up a written contract for each secondary or university student, at the latest when the secondary or university student starts work. 

The contract must be drawn up in triplicate, with the employer keeping one copy. The second copy is given to the secondary or university student, while the third must be sent to the Inspectorate of Labour and Mines (ITM).  

In the absence of a written contract or in the presence of a contract concluded late, the employment relationship is reclassified as a normal permanent employment relationship. 

What is the remuneration to be paid to secondary or university students?

The remuneration offered to the secondary or university student cannot be less than 80% of the minimum social wage for unskilled workers (see Social parameters). 

This minimum amount varies according to the age of the young person. 

Secondary or university students’ remuneration is tax-free up to €16 per hour. 

(last updated on 31.01.2024)

Do secondary or university students have to be declared to social security?

The employer is required to make a declaration of entry to the Joint Social Security Centre, to which he must attach a copy of the contract of employment. 

Although this formality must be completed, no social security contributions for health insurance, pension insurance and long-term care insurance are required. 

However, employers must pay a contribution for accident insurance, the rate of which depends on the sector of activity to which the business belongs. 

There is no need declaration of start of employment for secondary or university students. 

What other provisions of the Labour Code are also applicable to secondary or university students?

All legal regulatory and contractual provisions concerning working conditions and employee protection are applicable:

  • the provisions of the Labour Code relating to the protection of young employees;
  • the protection of pregnant employees, those who have recently given birth and those who are breastfeeding;
  • the pre-employment medical examinations;
  • the protection against harassment and violence, ionizing radiation.

However, secondary or university students are not entitled to regular annual leave.

Regarding extraordinary leave for personal events: extraordinary leave shall be granted in the cases provided for by law without any compensation being due during such absences.

(last update on 11.07.2023)