How has the graduate financial aid system evolved in recent years?

The Luxembourg legislation on financial aid for higher education has undergone many changes in recent years.

From June 2000 to July 2010: financial aid depended on the financial situation of a student's household

The law of 22 June 2000 on financial aid for higher education lays down the basic rules.

As under the previous system, financial assistance for graduate studies consisted of two components: a non-repayable bursary and a repayable loan with a subsidy for the interest.

The weighting between the bursary and loan components was based exclusively on a student’s household income.

In addition, a student could be awarded an incentive bonus if he or she successfully completed the chosen course of study in conjunction with what was outlined as the official period of study.

The law dated 22 June 2000 was amended for the first time by a law dated 4 April 2005 in order to generalise the residence criterion, which now also applies to students of Luxembourg nationality and not only to students of other nationalities, as previously. This amendment was to put an end to the inequality of treatment by virtue of nationality that the law had imposed till then.

Accordingly, from that date onwards, it was clear from the law that the criterion of residence in Luxembourg applies to all students, regardless of their nationality.

As of July 2010: financial aid no longer depends on the financial situation of the student's household

The law of June 2000 was then profoundly modified by the law dated 26 July 2010.

The legislator decided to eliminate family allowances for any student over 18 years of age who was no longer enrolled in secondary or technical secondary education in order to consolidate fiscal policy.

In order to compensate for the loss suffered by households as a result, the State decided to allocate financial aid for higher education to students regardless of their parents’ ability to contribute. Students were now considered young adults with the responsibility of financing their studies independently.

However, the new measure benefits only resident students.

And among them, especially students from relatively well-off families who, before that date, could not take advantage of the state’s financial aid for higher education because their parents had too high an income.

Less well-off families, who before these changes received family allowances plus financial assistance for their children who were studying, may even suffer financially to a slight degree, depending on the composition of their household.

But the biggest losers are non-resident students, children of cross-border workers, who until now received family allowances in Luxembourg, and who cannot obtain the new financial aid system that was put in place at the time, because as we must remember, financial aid for students is strictly reserved for resident students.

A law contrary to European law

In its opinion dated 5 July 2010 on draft law no. 6148, which led to the law dated 26 July 2010, the CSL had opposed a system of grants reserved for resident students, while the discrimination of cross-border workers and their families seemed blatant.

CSL cited the case law of the Court of Justice of the European Union, which states that workers who are nationals of a Member State must enjoy the same social and tax advantages in the territory of another Member State as national workers in the same situation.

Bill 6148 provided for the elimination of family allowances for the children over 18 years of age of all workers who were pursuing higher education whether resident or non-resident. To compensate for this loss, it nevertheless provided for compensation through a system of financial aid for higher education for the children of resident workers only. No compensation for the loss of this social aid was provided for the children of cross-border workers. These workers, placed in the same situation as resident workers, were therefore treated less favourably.

CSL could not agree to such a system and asked the Government to legislate fairly.

Notwithstanding the CSL’s remarks and opposition, the law was passed, obliging students, children of cross-border workers, to take legal action to ensure that their rights under European law are respected.

Numerous appeals to the Court of Justice of the European Union (CJEU) were then launched against Luxembourg.

In a judgment on 20 June 2013, the CJEU ruled that the residence requirement contained in the Luxembourg legislation is not in line with EU law.

The CJEU also considered that the granting of the grant could be subject to the condition that one of the parents of the student applying for the grant has worked in Luxembourg for at least some years.

The Luxembourg State was therefore obliged to amend its legislation in the field of grants so as to ensure equal treatment between resident and non-resident workers and their children.

From July 2013: financial aid for higher education was extended under certain conditions to non-resident students

This would be accomplished with the law dated 25 July 2013. From then on, access to financial aid from the Luxembourg State for higher education was granted under certain conditions to the children of cross-border workers.

Thus, a student who did not reside in Luxembourg could now also benefit from financial aid for higher education, provided that he or she is the child of an employed or self-employed person who is a Luxembourg national or a national of the European Union or of another State party to the Agreement on the European Economic Area or of the Swiss Confederation and who was employed or active in Luxembourg, and that this worker had been employed or had exercised his activity in Luxembourg for an uninterrupted period of at least five years at the time of the student’s application for financial aid for higher education.

As of July 2014: financial aid for higher education was again based on the financial situation of the student's household

Finally, the law dated July 24, 2014, again extensively reformed the system of financial aid for higher education.

As the system introduced in 2010 proved to be too costly due to the fact that Luxembourg had to extend the benefit of financial aid for higher education to non-resident students, the Government decided to reintroduce the income and other criteria and to take into account the contributory capacity of parents again, at least to some extent.

The components of financial aid for higher education remain the loan and the grant, but grants were now divided into four categories: basic grants, mobility grants, grants on social criteria and family grants. The loan and the basic grant could be increased by taking into account the registration fees.

Any student who was eligible for financial aid for higher education in Luxembourg was automatically entitled to the basic grant.

The mobility grant, on the other hand, was only payable if the student is studying abroad and had to pay rent abroad as a result.

As for the grant on social criteria and the family grant, these depended on the situation of the household to which the student belonged.

Comparing the scheme introduced by this law with the system before 2010, or even with the one introduced between 2010 and 2014, there is lower financial aid even for households already living on the minimum social wage (see Social parameters). As soon as the household income corresponds to twice the average wage (i.e. with both parents earning an average wage), the social grant is eliminated.

Accordingly, in 2014, CSL regretted that the Government once again hoped to save mainly at the expense of the middle classes, which was not acceptable.

The CSL demanded that all students be granted a basic grant that takes into account the amount of family allowances due to students before 2010, the child bonus, as well as the back-to-school allowance.

As of August 2016: Improvements to the amount of certain components of university level financial assistance

A 23 July 2016 law made some one-time improvements in higher education financial aid.

These involved primarily the increase in the amount of the mobility grant and the social grant as of the start of the 2016-2017 academic year, the indexation of the various grants planned as of 1 August 2017, the increase in the additional period of allocation of financial aid for students with a recognised disability and the extending of financial aid to non-resident students whose spouse or their father’s or mother’s partner was working or had worked for a certain period in Luxembourg.

From October 2019: expansion of criteria to benefit non-resident students

A Law dated 26 October 2019 once again rectified the legislation on student grants, following yet another ruling by the Court of Justice of the European Union on this matter.

In this judgment, the CJEU examined the question of whether or not the condition of making the granting of a grant to students not residing in Luxembourg territory subject to the condition that one of the student’s parents had been employed or had exercised an activity in Luxembourg at the date of the application for financial aid for a period of at least five years out of a reference period of seven years calculated retroactively from the date of this application for financial aid, was compatible with European Union law.

The CJEU considered this eligibility criterion to be too restrictive.

The 26 October 2019 law therefore broadened the circumstances to three levels:

  • it increased the reference period from seven to 10 years, while maintaining the minimum employment period at five years;
  • it introduced a criterion establishing a definitive link with Luxembourg: affiliation of one of the parents to Luxembourg for a cumulative period of at least 10 years;
  • it introduced criteria enabling students to establish a definitive link with Luxembourg (schooling for a cumulative period of at least five years or a previous stay of at least five years on Luxembourg territory).

What is new with the 29 October 2019 law?

Increase of the reference period from 7 to 10 years

In order for the non-resident student to benefit from financial aid for higher education, his or her parent must have worked in Luxembourg for at least five years during a reference period of ten years from the date of the application for financial aid for higher education, i.e. half the working period.

In addition, the student’s parent must be registered in the system at the time of application.

Definition of the concept of “worker”

The law defines a worker as a person who is either a student himself or who is subject to the obligation to support a “student” child and who has one of the following three statuses:

  • a worker who carries out real and effective salaried activities, to the exclusion of activities so small that they appear to be purely marginal or incidental;
  • a worker who carries out real and effective self-employed activities, excluding activities so small that they are purely marginal or incidental, and who is compulsorily and continuously affiliated to the social system of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg;
  • a person who retains the status of a worker or who falls into the following categories: a person receiving a pension or annuity due under Luxembourg legislation and a worker receiving an invalidity pension.

An additional eligibility criterion is that one of the parents of the applicant for financial assistance has worked in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg for a cumulative period of at least ten years at the time of the application. No reference period or requirement of ten years of uninterrupted work is required. The cross-border worker may therefore “accumulate” this ten-year period during his or her professional career in Luxembourg.

As with the previous criterion (five years out of ten), the student’s parent must be affiliated with the social system as a worker at the time of application.

Two new eligibility criteria are added for non-resident students who are children of a non-resident worker, in order to allow students to establish a connection with a Luxembourg company.

These are either:

  • attendance, for a minimum cumulative period of five years, at basic education, secondary education or initial vocational training provided by a public or private establishment situated in the territory of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg or a programme recognised as belonging to the Luxembourg higher education system;
  • a stay of at least five years in Luxembourg territory.

However, it should be emphasized that having completed at least five years of cumulative study in Luxembourg or of having resided for a cumulative period of five years on Luxembourg territory is not in itself sufficient to qualify for financial assistance. Students must be a dependent of a worker who is a Luxembourg national or a national of the European Union or of another State party to the Agreement on the European Economic Area or of the Swiss Confederation who is employed or working in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg at the time of their application for financial assistance in higher education.

There is no requirement for a minimum period of membership for non-resident workers.

Electronic filing of the application

Applications can now also be submitted electronically via the Myguichet.lu platform.

Who is eligible for state student financial aid?

You must be a student

To be eligible for state financial aid for higher education a person must:

  • be enrolled full-time in a course of higher education studies leading to a diploma, certificate or degree recognised as such in the country in which the studies take place;
  • be enrolled on a part-time basis in a higher education course leading to a higher education diploma, certificate or degree recognised as such in the country in which the studies are carried out and take at least 15 ECTS credits per semester or enrol in a course of study of at least half the minimum duration;
  • enrol in a professional training programme abroad on the basis of a ministerial authorization.

In addition, one of the following conditions must be met:

Students residing in Luxembourg

  • be a Luxembourg national or a family member of a Luxembourg national and be domiciled in Luxembourg;
  • be a national of another Member State of the European Union or of one of the other States party to the Agreement on the European Economic Area and of the Swiss Confederation and reside in Luxembourg as an employed or self-employed person or as a person who retains that status or as a family member of one of the above categories of persons or have acquired the right of permanent residence in Luxembourg;
  • have political refugee status and be domiciled in Luxembourg;
  • be a national of a third country or a stateless person and be domiciled in Luxembourg and have resided there for at least five years or have obtained long-term resident status before submitting the initial application and either hold a Luxembourg certificate of full secondary education or diploma or one recognised as equivalent, or be authorised by the Minister to enrol in vocational training abroad.

Students who do not reside in Luxembourg

  • be a worker who is a Luxembourg national or a national of another Member State of the European Union or of one of the other States party to the Agreement on the European Economic Area and of the Swiss Confederation and is working in Luxembourg at the time of application for financial assistance for higher education
  • be the child of a worker (This worker must be contributing to the student’s support at the time of application for financial assistance.) who is a Luxembourg national or a national of another Member State of the European Union or of one of the other States party to the Agreement on the European Economic Area and of the Swiss Confederation, and who has been working or has worked (Periods during which persons received unemployment benefit in Luxembourg are also taken into account.) in Luxembourg for at least five years:
    • over the last ten years prior to applying for graduate financial assistance;
    • over the ten years preceding the halting of professional activity for those receiving a pension or annuity due under Luxembourg law or an invalidity pension, at the time of application for State financial assistance for higher education.
  • be the child of a worker who is a Luxembourg national or a national of another Member State of the European Union or of one of the other States party to the Agreement on the European Economic Area and of the Swiss Confederation employed or working in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg at the time of the application for financial assistance for higher education, provided that this worker continues to contribute to the student’s support and that this worker has been employed or has worked in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg for a cumulative period of at least ten years at the time of the student’s application for financial assistance for higher education
  • be the child of a worker who is a Luxembourg national or a national of another Member State of the European Union or of one of the other States party to the Agreement on the European Economic Area and of the Swiss Confederation, employed or working in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg at the time of the application for financial aid for higher education, provided that this worker continues to contribute to the student’s support and meets one of the following conditions

1° have been enrolled for at least five years of cumulative study:

    • in a public or private establishment providing basic education, secondary education or initial vocational training and located in the territory of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg;
    • at the “Deutsch-Luxemburgisches Schengen-Lyzeum Perl“;
    • in a study programme offered by the University of Luxembourg leading to a bachelor’s, master’s or doctor’s degree or to a diploma of specialised studies in medicine;
    • in a study programme leading to a higher technician’s certificate and accredited by the Minister under the provisions of Title II of the amended Law dated 19 June 2009 on the organisation of higher education;
    • in an accredited study programme offered by a foreign higher education establishment established on the territory of the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg and accredited by the Minister pursuant to the provisions of Title III of the amended law dated 19 June 2009 on the organisation of higher education.

2° have resided legally in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg for a cumulative period of at least five years at the time of the student’s application for financial assistance for higher education.

From now on, this right will also be granted to a non-resident student whose parents do not work or have not worked in Luxembourg, but who has a father or mother whose new spouse or new official partner meets the conditions listed in the preceding paragraph.

What financial aid is available to students?

Resident and non-resident students with no own annual income above the minimum social wage for unskilled workers

State financial aid for higher education is awarded on a semester basis in the form of a grant and/or loan.

The financial aid can thus be composed of a “grant” part and a “loan” part.

It may also include partial coverage of registration fees, as well as an increase for serious and exceptional circumstances.

The bursary

Scholarships that students can obtain have several components:

  • Basic grant: this amounts to €1,199 per semester and is granted to any student eligible for state financial aid.
  • Mobility grant: this amounts to €1,491 per semester, but it is only granted if a student is eligible for state financial aid and is studying in a country other than their country of residence and renting housing there.
  • Scholarship on social criteria: this is for students who live in a household whose annual taxable income is less than or equal to 4.5 times the minimum social wage for unskilled workers (see Social parameters).

The amount of this grant is a maximum of €2,321 per semester. The exact amount depends on the total annual taxable income of the student’s household (see below).

Note that the part of the grant based on social criteria that is not awarded as a grant to a student can be added to the amount of the loan.

Amounts, per semester, of the grant based on social criteria per household taxable income:

Income less than the SSM nq*: €2,321
Income between 1 and 1.5 times the SSM nq: €1,963
Income between 1.5 and 2 times the SSM nq: €1,630
Income between 2 and 2.5 times the SSM nq: €1,329
Income between 2.5 and 3 times the SSM nq: €1,029
Income between 3 and 3.5 times the SSM nq: €727
Income between 3.5 and 4.5 times the SSM nq: €369
* (Salaire social minimum annuel pour salariés non qualifiés = annual minimum social wage for unskilled workers)

  • Family Grant: This is €287 per semester and is awarded if other children in the student’s household fall under the scope of the law regarding financial aid for higher education.

This means that a student can receive a maximum of €5,298 per semester of study as a student grant.

The loan

The loan that a student eligible for state financial aid can take out is €3,250 per semester of study.

As explained above, a maximum of €2,321 can be added to this amount if the student is not entitled to or not fully entitled to a grant on social criteria. In this case, the loan can be up to a maximum of €5,571.

Students must start repaying these loans two years after completing or ending their studies.

The maximum repayment period is in principle ten years.

Enrolment fees

Enrolment fees in excess of €100 are taken into account up to the amount of €3,800 per academic year.

Half of the state-funded tuition fee is added to the grant amount and half to the student’s loan amount.

Additional amount for serious and exceptional circumstances

On the basis of a ministerial decision, an additional amount of €2,000 per academic year may be granted to a student who are experiencing serious and exceptional situation and facing extraordinary expenses.

Half of this amount is a grant and half is a student loan.

In summary:

Non-repayable assistance
Basic grant €1,199 per semester
Mobility grant €1,491 per semester
Grant based on social criteria €0 to €2,321 per semester
Family grant €287 per semester
Enrolment fee
(= half as a grant)
0 to €1,900 per academic year
Additional amount for serious and exceptional circumstances
(= half in the form of a grant)
€1,000 per academic year

 

Repayable aid
Student loan €3,250 to €5,571 per semester depending on the social grant
Enrolment fee
(= half as a loan)
0 to €1,900 per academic year
Additional amount for serious and exceptional circumstances
(= half as a loan)
€500 per academic year 

Resident and non-resident students with own annual income above the minimum social wage for unskilled workers

For those whose own annual income is less than or equal to 3.5 times the minimum social wage for unskilled workers (see Social Parameters), but more than one time the minimum annual social wage for unskilled workers: all aid is granted in the form of a loan.

For those whose own annual income is more than 3.5 times the minimum social wage for unskilled workers (see Social Parameters): these persons are not eligible from financial aid for higher education.

The Ministry of Research and Higher Education (MESR) furthermore specifies in its brochure on state financial aid for higher education “AideFi” that income from student work limited to a maximum of ten hours per week as well as student jobs during the school holidays are not taken into account for the calculation of the grant on social criteria. However, any other income available to the student during the current academic year is added to the total annual household income and may influence the amount of a social grant.

As mentioned above, as soon as the student’s own income exceeds the threshold of the minimum annual social salary for unskilled workers (see Social Parameters), the provisions of paragraph 1 above are applicable.

The financial aid for higher education paid by the Luxembourg State cannot overlap with the following benefits to which the student is entitled in his State of residence (These same rules apply to a student who is staying in Luxembourg mainly for his studies):

  • any kind of financial aid for ­higher education or equivalent;
  • any other financial benefit received by the student or the household of which the student is a member that is directly related to the student status of the applicant for financial assistance.

According to the ministry, this includes family allowances, regional aid and housing aid. They are deducted, where applicable, from the financial aid for higher education to be paid by the Luxembourg State.

Students are required to take the necessary steps to obtain aid that cannot be combined with other aid in their country of residence of the household of which they a member and to submit certificates issued by the competent authorities of that country indicating the amount of financial aid and other financial benefits to which they or their household may be entitled, or the reason for the refusal. The amount in question shall be deducted from the financial assistance granted by Luxembourg. Should none of the abovementioned certificates be submitted, financial assistance shall be refused.

All forms of financial aid and other financial benefits, whether refundable or non-refundable, that may be available to students in the country of residence of the household of which they are a member shall be deducted in full, on a semester-by-semester basis, from the refundable or non-refundable amounts of financial aid for the first and second semesters.

The non-overlap rules do not apply to grants based on the student’s particular merit or to grants based on an international programme to promote international student mobility.

(last updated on 19.07.2024)

More information

For how many semesters can a student receive financial aid?

Grants and loans are applied for, allocated and paid out in two semester instalments per academic year.

However, the family grant is paid out in one instalment in the summer semester.

Undergraduate studies

Students enrolled in undergraduate studies may receive grants and loans for a number of years of study that exceeds by one the duration officially stipulated for completing the studies in which they have enrolled.

Graduate studies

Students enrolled in graduate studies can receive grants and loans for the number of semesters of study officially stipulated for completing the studies in which they have enrolled. This number is increased either by two units if the student has completed undergraduate work within the duration officially stipulated for completing undergraduate studies, or by one unit if the student has exceeded the duration officially stipulated for completing undergraduate studies.

Single-cycle studies

If the studies are organized in a single cycle, then the state financial aid for higher education is granted for the official duration of that cycle plus two semesters.

Research training

For a “research training” cycle, state financial aid is granted for a maximum of eight semesters.

Uncompleted study programmes

If students want to complete an undergraduate, graduate or a single cycle of studies programme that has not been completed, they may receive the full amount of financial aid in the form of a loan for up to two additional semesters.

New studies

Students who have successfully completed their undergraduate or graduate studies may receive assistance to undertake further undergraduate or graduate studies in another ­educational programme, but only once.

Students who have successfully completed a vocational training course abroad may receive financial assistance for a new vocational training course only once.

Academic underperformance

Students may be asked to justify progress in their studies.

If such is not forthcoming, the Ministry may deny financial assistance for university studies.

Indeed, the Minister will deny financial aid where academics are judged seriously deficient on the basis of progress, course attendance and presence in examinations.

In order to assess these, students receiving financial aid may be required to provide proof of attendance at classes, practical work or tutorials, completion of compulsory training courses as part of the course and attendance at examinations and competitions corresponding to their higher education programme.

Such proof may be provided by any means.

To be eligible for financial aid in the third year of their undergraduate studies, students must have met one of the following conditions:

  • have completed at least 60 ECTS credits in the first two years of study in the same higher education programme;
  • have validated at least 30 ECTS credits at the latest after the second year of study, provided that they have changed curriculum after the first enrolment in a higher education programme;
  • be enrolled in the second year of the higher education programme, which is defined in terms of length of study.

A student who, after two years of study, is enrolled in the first year of a higher education program is denied financial aid regardless of the results obtained.

Student with a recognized disability

A student with a recognized disability may receive grants and loans for a maximum of two additional semesters per cycle for undergraduate, graduate and research training studies, and for a maximum of four additional semesters for single cycle studies.

The progress of the student with a recognised disability is checked no later than after three years of undergraduate studies.

The law regarding state financial aid for higher education defines disability as “a substantial impairment, permanent or lasting, of one or more physical, mental, sensory, cognitive, or psychological functions that impedes normal educational progress.”

Recognition of the disability is subject to a decision by the Minister, on recommendation of the advisory committee established by the same law. This decision also determines the additional period of time for which the financial aid will be granted, as well as the time limit for postponing the control of students’ progress in their undergraduate studies.

What steps must a student take to receive graduate financial aid?

The student must apply for each semester of study.

The application for the winter semester must be made by 30 November of each year and the application for the summer semester by 30 April of each year using the questionnaire laid down by the Minister of Higher Education.

More information

What documents should be submitted with an application for financial aid?

A student’s application will only be considered complete if the documents required by law are included with the application. If the application is found to be incomplete, the student applicant must complete the application within one month of notification or the application for financial aid will be rejected.

Administrative formalities for the award of basic financial assistance

First application or change of cycle

When applying for the first time or changing cycles, the application must be accompanied by copies of the following documents and items:

  • a student ID, or, in the case of an electronic application, a qualified signature from the student;
  • a bank statement of the student;
  • a certificate of final enrolment in a student’s higher education programme;
  • for students who wish to follow a vocational training course abroad: an authorization issued by the minister responsible for vocational training;
  • for non-resident students: a certificate of affiliation to the social security system of the parent working in Luxembourg and a certificate of household composition;
  • a certificate of enrolment and, if applicable, certificates of successful completion of previous studies;
  • certificates giving information on the amount of financial aid or other financial advantages to which the student is entitled in another country, or regarding the reason for refusal; it should be noted that certificates mentioning administrative reasons for refusal are not accepted; certificates must refer to the academic year in question and be renewed each year;
  • students requesting an increase in the additional period of financial aid due to their disability must submit a medical certificate attesting to a substantial, lasting or permanent impairment of one or more physical, mental, sensory, cognitive or psychological functions which hinders the student’s normal progress in their studies.

Subsequent application

Submission of a subsequent application shall be accompanied only by copies of the following documents and materials:

  • a certificate of final enrolment in a higher education programme;
  • certificates giving information on the amount of financial aid or other financial benefits to which the student may be entitled in another country, or the reason for refusal;
  • when applying for a third year of study, a certificate giving information on the results of the previous academic years to establish that a student meets one of the following conditions:
    • has completed at least 60 ECTS credits in the first two years of study in the same higher education programme;
    • has validated at least 30 ECTS credits no later than after the second year of study, provided that the student changed curriculum after the first enrolment in a higher education programme;
    • be enrolled in the second year of the higher education programme, which is defined in terms of length of study.

The student is also required to provide any other documents that result in a change in the awarding or calculation of financial aid from the previous application.

For verification purposes, the Minister may request any additional documentation.

Administrative formalities for the allocation of the other financial aid modules

For one or more of the other grants, the following documents and materials are required:

Mobility grant

  • a copy of the lease agreement and proof of payment of rent.

Social criteria grant

Either

  • a copy of the most recent income tax statement or an income certificate issued by the Direct Tax Administration;

or

  • for persons who are not taxable via a tax assessment, an income certificate issued by the Direct Tax Administration and an annual certificate of salary, pension, annuity, unemployment or an income certificate from the Joint Social Security Centre.

For persons in the household who are not taxable in Luxembourg, the annual income must be supported by documentary evidence duly established by the competent authorities.

Additional financial assistance for enrolment fees

  • an official document relating to the enrolment fee and proof of payment of the fee.

What appeals of a decision to refuse financial aid are possible?

The decision on financial assistance is an administrative decision that can be appealed to the administrative court.

The time limit for action is three months from the moment the administrative decision was brought to the attention of the person concerned.

However, before filing an appeal with the administrative court, students can also request a new decision from the Minister by means of an informal appeal, requesting that the decision be reconsidered.

This appeal, lodged within three months of the notification of the decision to refuse financial aid for higher education, will have the advantage of starting a new three-month period for bringing an action for annulment before the administrative court. If a period of more than three months has elapsed since the submission of the informal appeal without a new decision, the three-month period for bringing an action begins to run as from the expiry of the three months.